The Positive Behaviour for Learning (PBL) framework supports schools to improve social, emotional, behavioural and academic outcomes for students, and schools can use it to:
- analyse and improve behaviour and learning outcomes
- select evidence-based practices for student support and intervention
- provide support to staff members in maintaining consistent and proactive school-wide and classroom systems and practices.
PBL provides a model of support for all students, consisting of 3 tiers of intervention. The tiers represent levels of intervention. They do not represent students.
- Tier 1 'universal' or 'school-wide' supports are the critical foundation for PBL. Supports are at the 'whole-school' (green zone) level and are provided to all students, including students with academic, emotional and behavioural difficulties. The focus of tier 1 is all students and staff across all settings—whole-school, classroom and non-classroom settings.
- Tier 2 or 'targeted' interventions support approximately 15% of students in a typical school. Students who are not responding to tier 1 and who have moderate, ongoing behaviours of concern (social, behavioural and academic) receive additional tier 2 or 'targeted' (yellow zone) level interventions. The focus of tier 2 is to reduce the number of existing cases of students requiring additional support.
- Tier 3 or 'intensive' interventions support approximately 5% of students who have not responded to tier 1 and 2 interventions. Students with the most intensive needs may require tier 3 or 'intensive' (red zone) levels of support, involving highly individualised interventions. The focus of tier 3 is to reduce the intensity and complexity of existing individual cases. It is important that students requiring tier 2 and tier 3 interventions have received, and are continuing to receive, the same level of tier 1 support as other students.
Tier 2 and 3 interventions are only effective when tier 1 foundations are strong. If there are more than 15% of students receiving tier 2 support then more attention has to be paid to tier 1.